By Dr. Becker
Unfortunately, just like people, dogs and cats also develop degenerative brain diseases known as canine or feline cognitive dysfunction syndrome. But unlike humans, often the signs a pet is in mental decline go unnoticed until the condition is so advanced there's little that can be done to turn things around or at least slow the progression of the disease.
Often, even an animal's veterinarian is unaware there's a problem because he or she doesn't see the pet that often and always in a clinical setting vs. at home. In addition, according to Dr. Jeff Nichol, a veterinary behavior specialist in Albuquerque, NM, many DVMs aren't aware of just how common cognitive dysfunction syndrome is. Vets assume pet parents will tell them when an older dog or cat is experiencing behavior changes, while owners assume the changes are just a natural part of aging.
In a large Australian study published in 2011 on canine cognitive dysfunction (CCD),1 scientists at the University of Sydney reported that about 14 percent of dogs develop CCD, but less than 2 percent are diagnosed. In addition, the risk of CCD increases with age -- over 40 percent of dogs at 15 will have at least one symptom. Researchers also estimate the prevalence of cognitive dysfunction in geriatric dogs at 68 percent.
In a study also published in 2011 on cognitive decline in cats,2 a researcher at the University of Edinburgh, Hospital for Small Animals estimated that a third of all cats between 11 and 14 years of age have age-related cognitive decline. That number increases to 50 percent for cats 15 years and older.
Are You Discussing Your Pet's Behavior Changes with Your Vet?
Veterinary behaviorists are beginning to speak out about the need for vets to monitor behavior in older pets just as they do other body systems. According to Dr. Marsha Reich, a diplomate of the American College of Veterinary Behavior:
"Just because he's getting old doesn't mean that we just stand on the sidelines and let him get old. There are things we can do to intervene and improve the dog's ability to function and improve its quality of life."
Dr. Gary Landsberg, a veterinary behaviorist in Ontario, Canada, agrees. "This is critical. Early recognition allows for early intervention," he says.
One of the challenges for vets is that older pets often have multiple health conditions that must be managed, and behavior issues – when addressed at all -- often take a back seat. This is especially true for DVMs who expect pet parents to make a separate appointment to discuss behavior changes they've noticed in their dog or cat. Typically by the time that happens, if it happens at all, it's too late.
Animal behavior experts would like to see vet clinic staff give owners a behavioral questionnaire to complete before the dog or cat is taken to the examination room. (Questionnaires could even be emailed to pet owners a day or two before a scheduled appointment.) The vet can then quickly scan the questionnaire to see if there's a need to discuss changes in an animal's behavior with the owner.
The questionnaires, if done routinely, also provide a history both the vet and pet owner can refer to as the dog or cat ages.
At my practice, we have clients complete a "Catching Up" form every 6 months at their wellness exam, which covers any new behaviors that may have developed over the past months since their pet's last exam.
Your Pet's Mental Decline Has a Physical Cause
Cognitive dysfunction presents as a psychological problem, but the root cause is actually physical and is the result of age-related changes within the brain.
Dogs' and cats' brains age in a similar fashion and undergo oxidative damage, neuronal loss, atrophy and the development of beta-amyloid plaques. These ß-amyloid plaques are also seen in human Alzheimer's sufferers.
According to Dr. Nicholas Dodman, professor and program director of animal behavior at Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine at Tufts University, "normal aging" does exist. Some features of cognitive function do decrease with age, but cognitive dysfunction of the type seen in Alzheimer's disease is not normal.
While canine dementia isn't exactly the same disease as Alzheimer's in people, the development of ß-amyloid plaques in pets results in confusion, memory loss, and other symptoms related to mental function. And the condition can come on and progress very rapidly.
Diagnosis of cognitive dysfunction in a pet is a diagnosis of exclusion. There are many conditions older animals acquire that mimic the signs of cognitive decline, so it's important to rule out all other physical reasons for a change in behavior. For example, a small seizure can cause a pet to stand still and stare. If your pet seems detached, he could be in pain. Inappropriate elimination can be due to kidney disease. These disorders and many others can result in a change in behavior unrelated to cognitive decline. That's why it's so important to rule out all possible alternative reasons, especially in aging pets.
It's also important for your vet to review any medications your dog or cat is taking. Older animals metabolize drugs differently than younger pets, and if a dog or cat has been on a certain medication for years, it's possible it is having a different effect as he gets older.
And keep in mind your aging kitty may need a more accessible litter box, and an older dog may need more trips outside to relieve herself.
How to Help Your Aging Pet Stay Mentally Sharp
Fortunately, there are many things you can do to help your aging pet maintain good mental function for as long as possible, and delay the onset and progression of cognitive decline.
- The foundation for good health and vitality for pets of any age is a nutritionally balanced, species-appropriate diet. Your pet's diet should include omega-3 essential fats, such as krill oil, which are critical for cognitive health. Your pet's body needs an ideal energy source to promote the processes of metabolism, growth and healing. That perfect fuel -- especially for aging pets -- is a healthy variety of fresh, living food suitable for your carnivorous cat or dog.
- Keep your pet's body and mind active with regular exercise appropriate for your pet's age and physical condition, and mental stimulation (puzzles and treat-release toys can be beneficial). Make sure your dog has opportunities to socialize with other pets and people. Think of creative ways to enrich your cat's indoor environment.
- Provide your pet with a SAMe (S-adenosylmethionine) supplement as a safe and effective way to stall or improve mental decline. Consult your pet's veterinarian for the right dose size for your dog or cat. There are also commercial cognitive support products available.
- Medium-chain triglycerides (MCTs) have been shown to improve brain energy metabolism and decrease the amyloid protein buildup that results in brain lesions in older pets. Coconut oil is a rich source of MCTs. I recommend 1/4 teaspoon for every 10 pounds of body weight twice daily for basic MCT support.
- Other supplements to consider are resveratrol (Japanese knotweed), which protects against free radical damage and beta-amyloid deposits, ginkgo biloba, gotu kola and phosphatidylserine – a nutritional supplement that can inhibit age-related cognitive deficits. Consult a holistic veterinarian for dosing guidance.
- Cats are often nocturnal throughout their lives, but older dogs can develop problems sleeping at night. They tend to sleep all day and stay awake all night, pacing, making noise, and feeling anxious and uncomfortable. Behaviorists recommend melatonin, which is not only a sedative with a calming effect, but also an antioxidant. I also use Rhodiola, chamomile and l-theanine in both cats and dogs with excellent results.
- Keep your pet at a healthy size – overweight dogs and cats are at significant increased risk for disease as they age.
- Maintain your pet's dental health.
- I recommend twice-yearly vet visits for pets no matter the age, but this becomes even more important for animals getting up in years. Keeping abreast of your dog's or cat's physical and mental changes as she ages is the best way to catch any disease process early. Ask your vet to perform a blood test to check your dog's internal organ health to make sure you are identifying possible issues early on.
When your pet begins to respond to therapy designed to improve cognitive function, in the case of a dog, you can begin re-training him using the same techniques you used when he was a puppy – positive reinforcement behavior training involving lots of treats and praise.
Of course, none of these recommendations will be terribly helpful for a pet in the advanced stages of cognitive decline, which is why it's so important to diagnose and begin treating the problem as early as possible.
Cognitive dysfunction is a progressive disease that can't be cured, but early diagnosis and intervention can slow mental decline and offer your aging pet good quality of life.