By Dr. Becker
As a dog parent, you know that each change of season comes with a list of potential hazards for furry family members. With autumn upon us and winter on the way, it's time for a refresher on some of the potential hazards presented by the change of seasons from warmer to cooler weather. Consumer Affairs lists five "doggy dangers of fall."1
5 Fall Dangers for Dogs
Snakes preparing for hibernation during the winter months may be more visible in the fall, which can increase your dog's risk of being bitten. Fortunately, most snakes in the U.S. aren't poisonous, but even a non-venomous snakebite can be dangerous for pets. Tips to keep your dog safe:
If you see a snake, don't walk by it; turn around and head back the way you came
Clear away snake hiding spots in your yard by removing toys, tools and undergrowth
Be aware that snakes can strike across a distance equal to about half their body length
Keep walkways clear of brush, flowers and shrubs
Clean up any spilled food, fruit or birdseed, which can attract rodents, one of snakes' favorite foods, to your yard
When walking your dog, keep him on a leash
Steer clear of long grasses, bushes and rocks
Familiarize yourself with common snakes in your area, including those that are venomous
Thankfully, 99 percent of mushrooms present little or no problem for pets or people, however, the remaining 1 percent can be fatal for most mammals if ingested. And to make matters worse, very few people can tell the difference between a toxic mushroom and a safe one.
Since dogs typically come across wild mushrooms during walks and other outdoor activities, especially if you live in a region with lots of moisture, it's important to take extra care to keep pets away from areas where mushrooms might be sprouting. Dogs tend to be attracted to two deadly mushroom species: Amanita phalloides and Inocybe. Both varieties have a fishy odor, which may be the lure.
The Amanita muscaria and Amanita pantherina varieties of mushroom also have a fishy odor, and are also frequently eaten by dogs.
They contain the toxic compounds ibotenic acid and muscimol, which in rare instances can cause death in dogs. The Inocybe and Clitocybe mushrooms contain a compound called muscarine that can be lethal to dogs. Since muscarine doesn't seem to be a problem for humans, it's assumed dogs must be uniquely sensitive to it.
Some Scleroderma mushroom species are also toxic to dogs, but the poisonous substance hasn't yet been identified.
To ensure your dog isn't tempted, mushrooms in yards (yours and your neighbors') should be removed promptly before neighborhood pets have a chance to notice them. As a general rule, veterinarians and pet poison experts consider all mushroom ingestions in pets toxic unless a quick and accurate identification of the mushroom can be made.
If you know or suspect your dog has eaten a mushroom, immediately contact your veterinarian, the nearest emergency animal clinic or the 24/7 Pet Poison Helpline at 855-764-7661. If your pet throws up or poops, collect a sample, place it in a plastic bag and bring it with you.
3. Rodent poison
Once the weather turns cool, rats and other rodents start looking for shelter and warmth in and under buildings, and in response, people start putting out rodenticides that are unfortunately highly toxic to pets. Every fall, I see several pets that have been poisoned.
Homeowners put out bait to control the mice and rats, assuming their pet won't or can't get into it. Even people who hide the bait around their homes can wind up with a poisoned dog. Tips for protecting your pet from rodent bait toxicity:
- If you have rodents around your home, I recommend a live trap called the Havahart®, which is a humane trap that catches mice, rats and other rodents so you can remove them from your home without using toxins or poisoning your environment.
- If you must use a bait trap with a killing agent, select a product that contains an active ingredient other than deadly bromethalin. For example, diphacinone and chlorophacinone are short-acting anticoagulants, and most veterinarians will be familiar with standard methods of diagnosis and treatment. But again, I don't advocate using these products if at all possible.
- Supervise your dog when she's outside to insure she never has a chance to consume rodents or rodent bait around your home or neighborhood.
Needless to say, if you suspect your pet has ingested any type of rodenticide, get her to your veterinarian or the nearest emergency animal hospital right away, and if possible, bring a sample of the product she consumed so the vet staff knows what type of poison they're dealing with.
4. Engine coolants
Another substance people use in the colder months of the year that is highly toxic to pets is antifreeze. Fortunately, antifreeze poisoning can be easily avoided by following a few simple safety tips:
- Look for antifreeze products containing the safer propylene glycol rather than highly toxic ethylene glycol
- Keep antifreeze containers tightly closed and stored out of reach of your pets
- Dispose of empty or used antifreeze containers properly
- Be careful not to spill antifreeze, and if you do, clean it up immediately; check your car radiator regularly and repair leaks right away
- Don't let your pet roam unsupervised where he may have access to antifreeze
Fortunately, U.S. manufacturers of antifreeze and engine coolants have begun to add bittering agents (e.g., denatonium benzoate) to their products to discourage pets, children and wildlife from sampling the sweet-tasting liquid.
5. School supplies
Another risk the change of seasons from summer to fall presents for pets is, believe it or not, back-to-school supplies. For example, if you've indulged your kids with fruit-scented pencils and erasers, they can attract your dog like a moth to a flame. Common school supplies that present a potential choking hazard for pets include:
Glue sticks/bottled glue
Action figures/small dolls
Pencils (small splinters can get lodged in the mouth and esophagus)
Pens (watch out especially for pen caps)
While these items are considered "low toxicity" to pets, there is the potential for GI upset and even a blockage, so be sure the kiddos keep their school supplies out of reach of four-legged family members.