One of the Biggest Mistakes Pet Owners Make That Cuts Lives Short

obese pet

Story at-a-glance -

  • Pet obesity rates in the U.S. increased yet again in 2017 — 56 percent of dogs and 60 percent of cats are now overweight or obese
  • Obesity leads to a long list of serious, debilitating conditions in both cats and dogs; it also shortens their lives and compromises their quality of life
  • If your pet is too heavy, it’s important to calculate how many calories she should eat each day, and serve portion-controlled, high-quality, fresh food meals that keep her well-nourished as she loses weight
  • Daily exercise is also an absolute must for weight loss in dogs and cats

By Dr. Karen Shaw Becker

Sadly, pet obesity in the U.S. continues to trend upward. In 2016, the Association for Pet Obesity Prevention (APOP) revealed that 54 percent of dogs and 59 percent of cats were overweight or obese. According to the 2017 APOP survey, those numbers rose once again to 56 percent of dogs and 60 percent of cats.1

"The number of pets with clinical obesity continues to increase," APOP founder veterinarian Dr. Ernie Ward said in a press release. "We're continuing to see more pets diagnosed with obesity rather than overweight. Clinical obesity results in more secondary conditions such as arthritis, high blood pressure, kidney disease, and certain forms of cancer."2

The following were the top 10 most common dog and cat obesity-related conditions in 2017 according to Nationwide Pet Insurance:3

Most Common Dog Obesity-Related Conditions in 2017

1. Osteoarthritis

2. Cystitis or urinary tract disease

3. Hepatitis or hepatopathy

4. Hypothyroidism

5. Cruciate ligament

6. Diabetes

7. Intervertebral disc disease

8.Chronic renal disease

9. Congestive heart failure

10. Hypertension

Most Common Cat Obesity-Related Conditions in 2017

1. Cystitis or urinary tract disease

2. Chronic renal disease

3. Diabetes

4. Asthma

5. Hepatitis or hepatopathy

6. Osteoarthritis

7. Hypertension

8. Congestive heart failure

9. Gall bladder disorder

10. Spondylosis

Obesity-related diseases in dogs and cats are entirely preventable, and yet they continue to increase. Many of these conditions can take years off a pet's life and destroy his or her quality of daily life.

The financial implications are serious, too, since it's estimated pet parents pay tens of millions of dollars in medical costs to treat their animals for obesity-related conditions, when simply eating better food and less of it would have been a much better option from the beginning.

How to Tell if Your Dog or Cat Is Overweight

One of the problems contributing to the epidemic of pet obesity is that overweight dogs and cats have become the "new normal" and as a result, many people can't tell the difference between a fat pet and a normal-sized pet.

If you're not sure about your own pet, look down at her from above. You should be able to see a tapered-in waist. If she's oval-shaped, she's probably too heavy. You should also be able to feel (but not see) her ribs as well as the bones near the base of her tail. If she's obese, you'll see noticeable amounts of excess fat on her abdomen, hips and neck. Also compare your pet to these body condition charts provided by the World Small Animal Veterinary Association (WSAVA):

>>>>> Click Here <<<<<

>>>>> Click Here <<<<<

The goal for both dogs and cats is a body condition score of 5. Unfortunately, many owners assume their pet's body score is just fine because their veterinarian never mentions their pet has a weight issue during exams. Veterinarians fail to address extra pounds for many reasons, including because it can be an uncomfortable conversation.

I find this to be a great disservice to pet parents, and I don't gloss over weight issues, ever. If your dog or cat is too heavy, it's my job as your veterinarian to advise you of this, create a plan to help your pet lose weight, partner with you to achieve the goals we set and celebrate with you as your dog or cat shows up slimmer (and therefore healthier) at follow-up exams.

I've had countless pet parents tell me I was the first veterinarian to mention their dog or cat needed to lose a few pounds, which tells me vets aren't adequately addressing the slow but consistent weight gain that occurs over time and contributes to so many degenerative diseases that could be avoided with appropriate weight management.

How to Feed Your Overweight Pet

Pet foods high in carbohydrates  — typically kibble — are the biggest cause of obesity in both dogs and cats. Your carnivorous pet needs food high in animal protein and moisture, with low to no grain or starch content (which is pretty much the opposite of what dry pet foods offer, especially grain-free kibble).

A high-quality fresh food diet is the best choice for pets who need to lose weight. It's important to adequately nourish their bodies as weight loss occurs, making sure their requirements for key amino acids, essential fatty acids and other nutrients are met.

The key to healthy weight loss is to meet your pet's nutritional requirements through a balanced diet but feed less food (portion control), which forces her body to burn fat stores. The first step is to transition her to a diet free of potatoes, corn, rice, soy and tapioca.

My recommendation is a homemade fresh food diet of lean meats, healthy fats, and fibrous vegetables and low glycemic fruits as the only sources of carbohydrates. Next, calculate kcal (kilocalorie) requirements for your pet's ideal weight. Let's say your dog is 60 pounds and should be 50 pounds.

Daily calories (canine) = Body Weight (kg) x 30 + 70

To use this formula, first you need to convert her weight from pounds to kilograms.

One kilogram = 2.2 pounds, so divide her ideal weight (not her current weight) in pounds by 2.2. 50/2.2 = 22.7, so you dog's ideal weight in kilograms is 22.7.

Now our formula looks like this: Daily calories = 22.7 (kg) x 30 + 70

And finally, it looks like this: Daily calories = 751

If your dog eats 750 calories a day she should drop steadily to her ideal weight of 50 pounds and maintain it.

The formula for kitties has a slight variation to account for the very sedentary lifestyle of most housecats:

Daily calories (feline) = Body Weight (kg) x 30 + 70 x 0.8

Measure your pet's food portions using an actual measuring cup and drastically limit treats (be sure to include any treats you feed in his total daily calorie count). I recommend setting aside a small portion of homemade food that can be rolled into tiny pea-sized bites and used as treats throughout the day.

Other options are a few raw pumpkin or sunflower seeds, berries and frozen peas, and also homemade treats. Small amounts of other fruits (melons and blueberries, for example) as well as tiny cubes of low-fat cheese also make good treats. Just be sure to feed quantities that are no more than a one eighth-inch square and all treats for the day fit into a tablespoon for every 30 pounds of dog (and measure it, really).

In Order for Your Pet to Lose Weight, Daily Exercise Is a MUST

Consistent daily exercise, including at least 20 minutes (and preferably 60) of aerobic activity will help your pet burn fat and increase muscle tone. If you're unable to provide your dog with this much physical activity (and some dogs require even more), consider joining a pet sports club or doggy daycare. Another option is to hire a dog walker (or dog jogger, hiker or biker).

If your pet is very overweight or obese, he may not be able to endure extended periods of exercise initially. Swimming is actually an excellent low-impact, gentle form of exercise for dogs that need to start out slow, as well as those with arthritis or mobility issues. Ask your veterinarian what exercises are safe for your pet to do, and which you either need to avoid or put off until he's in better condition. If you're dealing with a fat feline, check out 10 ways to help your cat exercise.